Happy 200th Birthday to Joe Green (a.k.a. Giuseppe Verdi)!


The great Italian opera traditions that exploded in the 19th century are primarily due to Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901). Not only were singers and their public smitten by his new approach and the association of his name with the Risorgimento’s nationalistic purposes but composers such as Franz Liszt were arranging complex and layered operatic scenes for virtuosic piano solos. One enigmatic master, Vladimir de Pachmann, recorded the Rigoletto paraphrase three times: here’s his second version, recorded in 1911 across the river from Philadelphia in Camden, New Jersey, playing into a horn that engraved his sounds into a wax master that later was plated to stamp out shellac 78rpms.



Pachmann’s dates (1848-1933) overlap a sizable part of Verdi’s maturity. His deft capturing of Liszt’s translation of the excerpt into a solo performance attests to an informed and and lyrical sense guided by a taste that understood his opera genre, possibly familiar through performances in the late 19th century.

1901 may seem like a distant time, unattainable to go directly to Verdi himself, but one of his great creators and champions, Francesco Tamagno (1850-1905) was recorded two years after the composer’s death. Born in Torino (Turin) to an innkeeper, a vivid description is in Mario Corsi’s biography of the singer:

“Once there were many trattorias around the lower class Porta Palazzo section, but  one run by Carlo Tamagno, under the insignia proclaiming it as The Centaur along the edge of the Dora, enjoyed a certain fame: above all due to the culinary connoisseurs who appeared at any hour of the day for an excellent fish fry, which was caught at the moment, in a net, always available, just steps away on the river bank, for which the trattoria became commonly known as pesci vivi (“live fish”), and also because the host was a simpatico giant of a man, a bit coarse in his manners but reserved and good-hearted just like the wine in his barrels, a great gentleman.

“The clients knew his weak spot: they knew he was proud to possess a beautiful tenor voice – and therefore there was nothing lacking in his singing, not even lacking the passion of singing, so when in the mood and finding the right moment, he was able to offer a taste of  his voice, which gave him the same pride as his fish and wine.”

Not long after the birth of his son Francesco:


Italy became embroiled in a movement to gain independence and unity, spearheaded by Garibaldi and Verdi on the musical front. Francesco Tamagno’s talent was noted at once in such an environment and his art and career developed rapidly, leading to North and South American tours. Verdi created his role Otello for Tamagno, and his interpretation became a startling emblem of Verdi’s new music.

Many recordings by Italian singers began to proliferate as soon as the Gramophone & Typewriter Co. set up their studio inside a Milanese hotel room in 1901, nabbing Enrico Caruso and other current stars. Tamagno was ill, in retirement, and could not venture to the studio, so two years after Verdi’s death, the G&T crew carted their gear to his holiday villa and in 1904 another session took place in Roma. These examples of his art reveal the depth of Verdian drama and style in a way that later singers rarely experience or approach: a few excerpts are from Otello – recorded within two years of the composer’s passing. Our newly created restoration technology makes his voice so present that the demands it inflicted on the fragile recording horn are palpable. Listeners are advised to pretend the background shellac noise is a rainfall outside the Villa.

An aria in Il Trovatore, Di quella pira, serves as an introduction to his voice’s body, control, projection, and drama:

The surface of this aria’s message and style would deepen as Verdi worked with Tamagno and developed their Otello. Hear its creator sing the Death of Otello: Verdi is above Tamagno, who would otherwise tower over him.

A very expressive photo of the elderly composer with his dynamo interpreter reveals their affinity for one another’s art and character.


The demand for remarkable tenors grew and is still exemplified by Caruso, who hailed from Napoli which had  existed for centuries as  a Bourbon colony under the Spanish, ruled as their Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.


His songful Neapolitan dialect is far from Northern Italy’s and a 1915 recording of the pop song O Sole Mio displays a Spanish holdover by moving to a habanera rhythm. Caruso’s tenor is caught in a new restoration:

Caruso was dragged through a commercialization process, one that neglected to fully document his roles or go beyond popular kitsch yet he remains as a cultural icon, as does the later and lesser Pavarotti but Tamagno’s art outlasts the limits of their style and musicianship, a singer who probably sang himself to death by stressing his body for Art, dying at age 55. Here we close by offering Otello’s entrance: Esultate (recorded one hundred ten years ago, in 1903), a direct opening into Verdi’s surroundings:


©Allan Evans 2013

Roots of Shreds: Italian pop does the Beatles.



Teresa Sterne: guiding genius of Nonesuch Records when it took flight entered my life when Arbiter first started, around 1995. She was a mentor who adamantly did her utmost to help me become civilized and insisted I tune in to Mark Twain’s The Mysterious Stranger. Twain had been a mentor to her since she grew up during the Depression in Borough Park, Brooklyn and found affordable editions of his works at a nearby grocery store. This precedent followed her as she developed an inexpensive and extraordinary record label to document the finest new music of all times, remarkble pre-20th century repertoire, revive Scott Joplin (looming behind her in the photo); she elevated World Music out of its  shlock status of the International bin.

Our friendship continued until her life’s premature end. Some time before she took ill, Tracey handed over a cassette  from an Italian radio program, saying it was just too much for words. A first listening found  an accented dissecting of the Lennon-McCartney song Dear Prudence abetted by a pianist:

It  struck me that something sublimely ironic was at play and perhaps more would emerge, but  anyway I kept quiet, sitting back and enjoying time’s passing, eventually seeing the flow of this genre morph into shreds:

One wondered, just who was this mysterious singer?


Italianizing Liverpudlians just like her Roman ancestors spread their architecture, law, and style throughout an expanding empire, her bio depicts a champion of avant-garde music, opera, one whose life was cut short in 1991 at age  forty-nine: Alide Maria Salvetta. And her pianist  was Antonio Ballista, noted colleague of Ennio Morricone and an accomplished musician of many genres.

Tracey may have cried Uncle by the time this cassette hit  mid-point but taking it home, a surprise came up in the last minutes when an RAI announcer stated that Ms. Salvetta, in the shoes of a singer, would now put on a pianist’s shoes to play a duo version of Back in the USSR.


My deep regret is that Robert Ashley didn’t get his hands on Salvetta to sing his texts and collide with his keyboard wizard Blue Gene Tyranny.

 ©Allan Evans 2013




Ludwig’s Gnome

What a dizzying array of history swarms around the legendary pianist Frederic Lamond (1868-1948). Like his older colleague Eugen D’ Albert, he was a Scots who made Germany his primary home. This little bio fleshes out the pile up of historic figures he bombinated with. Cosy in Berlin, Lamond reigned as a leading interpreter of Beethoven’s music from the end of the 19th century up until the 1930s.


Shortly before he passed, Lamond was featured on the BBC, reading from a script, in which he recalled the youthful emotion of meeting Liszt and becoming his pupil. Whether he heard Liszt play is another matter and neither is there any recollection of private lessons received, so like many others, the atmosphere of contact was one finding the young pianist being coached by Liszt to be more expressive, urging from by a director for a film or theater. Liszt’s final visit to London coincided with Lamond’s debut and his master’s attendance added allure to the event. Lamond’s moving account seems to aim at transmitting through osmosis the mythic kiss Beethoven bestowed on the young Liszt into Lamond’s psyche. His delivery, instead, immediately raises suspicions about just how well he ingested Beethoven’s art.

Like may Scots for whom English is a second language, Lamond acquired proficiency in German and knew a bit of Russian. His Masters Voice grabbed him early on to document his Beethoven. What really strikes is how he clarifies all the melodic moments, their appearances in all registers, and deftly calculated accents. Here is an  example of his Beethoven, a work entitled Scherzo, implying wit, humor, lightness, surprises, a Beethovenian jest:

Beethoven Sonata 31.3.2 

When did the joke start? Did Lamond have any idea that something could be amusing, tritefully witty, that there was a tossed-off barb in the middle?  How about Edouard Risler, born five years later?

Luckily he was Alsatian, which made it easy for him to co-exist in Germanic and French cultures. He played the Beethoven sonatas as a cycle and is ignored as his recordings came too early, on an obsolete format. His Beethoven chases its tail; Lamond chases his reputation:


Lamond tries hard to show off how serious and important Beethoven can be, but unlike the healthier mental and cultural diet of Risler, Lamond’s proper constipation prevents Beethoven from reaching beyond his own pedantry. Lamond’s rolled bass notes sound clumsily timed, visceral returns after chugging down beer.

But this is Beethoven’s lighter side and we chart the depths he aimed for and reached, even entirely bypassing the 19th century in his late works. Chopin spoke of having disliked Beethoven’s music but made a strong exception for the Twelfth sonata, which seems to have inspired the design of his own Second. Its final movement has to resolve the emotional darkness of a funeral march and a set of variations into a flurry of setting everything down, reshaping the dramatic chaos into a cosmic release. One pianist who captured this effort was the Russian-English Mark Hambourg,

who divined what Beethoven omitted in words:

op. 26.4

Lamond recorded the sonata nearly at the same time as Hambourg:

Lamond plays Beethoven op. 28 IV

Artur Schnabel soon eclipsed Lamond, starting in Berlin and spreading his newly revived Beethoven globally through concerts and recording all the sonatas. Recently a Beethoven Third Concerto with Lamond in concert was published  by Marston Records and it most likely will represent a better idea of his art, as his stodgy studio playing only offers the sterile mic any musical tributes.

As a teacher, one pupil returned in anguish for his second lesson. Earlier, the young Dane Borge Rosenbaum


was stopped every bar being told that all was wrong! He felt acute intestinal pains each time he returned to ring the master’s bell and had to stop torturing himself. Returning to Copenhagen, he reinvented himself as Victor Borge, who had heard Ignaz Friedman in Berlin and found him to be the very model of a musician and person.

But as Frederic Lamond was an important Beethoven performer we can learn a great deal from his playing in what not to do,  as many mannerisms may have been aped from the luminaries he heard such as von Bülow and others. Surely this Beethoven expert, teacher, editor, recording artist and international celebrity knew well Schiller’s text in Beethoven’s Ode to Joy, mentioning that all men should be brothers? It may not have been on his front burner whilst writing the following to his British manager Ibbs & Tillett:


If you could arrange some engagcments, say 4 or 5, to fit in with the Historical Series in London I would now book dates definitely at the Wigmore Hall. The engagements would have to be booked on the understanding that I do not play for less than 40 guineas. The difficulty is that my business arrangements would have to be handled individually, and my name not sent out with a crowd of Jew pianists, Jew violinists and Jcw singers, but lbbs & Tillett have always steadily refused to accept my suggestions and here I am, dissatisfied with my work in England, which is not worthy of my reputation as an artist. Are you waiting for me to become circumcised, because it is rather late in the day and I am afraid I cannot oblige you? I don’t wish ln anyway to irritate you, but you must try and see my point of view. That old conservatoire ideas of waiting for engagements have gone to the wall, and at the present day you have got to hunt for them, otherwise there is nothing doing. What about the Mosel tour or the successors of Mosel? What about the Beecham Concerts in London? I read about a series of subscription pianoforte recitals in GIasgow, which you seem to be unaware’ of. I am going to South America in the course of the next few weeks, and would like to have your
answer before setting out on my journey. (22 April 1935)

A few years later, Germany became a bit uncomfortable for Lamond and he returned to England, a sacred cow at pasture.

Allan Evans © 2013


Czech modernism

Beethoven exhausted the string quartet. Thoroughly. It took nearly a century for Bartók to stand up and continue its destiny. In the interim, Brahms burned untold numbers of his manuscripts to allow three to appear, each with characteristic slight-of -hand harmonic gear-shifts yet padded with lumbering rhythms, sounding a bit bloated despite all his efforts. Brahms did far better when he had more than four players to contend with.



Brahms was attracted to Hungary but the Czech composer Dvořák was attracted to Brahms’s music and did wonders with its shape. His Hungary turned out to be the United States, where he resided for about four years in New York and out in a Czech community in Iowa.


Dvořák heard Black music and was smitten by gospel singing and their rhythms, harnessing a bit into his language. One quartet, whose name became sanitized from the N word into American, was recorded by his son-in-law Josef Suk and the Bohemian String Quartet he founded and led. While Vienna sailed on as the cultural light of the late 19th century, its outsiders were the ones innovating and avoiding being boxed up in the status quo. Here is a taste of the quartet’s 1928 recording:

Dvorak String Quartet op. 96, first movement, by the Bohemian String Quartet

It sounds episodic, like late Beethoven, and springs out from the Brahmsian three-piece suit to move more freely, flirting with folk music while carrying on the classical principles. The Bohemians are the closest we can get to a composer they championed in concerts throughout non-Czech Europe.

A Scottish-Italian composer and pianist, Giovanni Sgambati, was a Roman pupil of Liszt and was recorded in a movement from Dvořák’s Piano Quintet in 1908 (announced by Sgambati: uno…due.) Italian musical life was dominated by the voice so it took a Sgambati to wake them up to Beethoven and German music. He and his band are showing us the gulf of a modern thinker at the keyboard stuck with slippery sliding string players whose practice was soon to end.

Sgambati and his quartet play Dvorak


Sgambati quintet

As old string playing and its 19th century were moribund and finally put down in World War I, another  composer arose: Janacek the Moravian. He transformed speech and content into sound, no longer enslaved by themes and their past as expressive narrative. By endowing pitches into wordless speech, Janacek could evoke states of mind and emotions. Milan Kundera, the son of a pupil, mentions Janacek’s role in his Testaments Betrayed (p. 186):

The permanent coexistence of contradictory emotions gives Janacek’s music its dramatic quality; dramatic in the most literal sense of the term: this music does not evoke a narrator telling a tale, rather, it evokes a stage set on which many different characters are simultaneously present, speaking, confronting each other; the seed of this dramatic space is quite often found within a single melody itself.


Kundera once had to choose between following his creativity into music composition or literature and while we appreciate the outcome, his writings on music elevate his ideas far above scholars and pen-pushers through an insight not only sharpened by an innate understanding of art in relation to socio-aesthetics, but from the presence of a pianist father who had studied with the composer.

When I asked Kundera about his father, he tersely offered that all he had to say was in his Testaments and that he owned no recordings by him. Was he was planning to eventually cover the music of his early life and family, or mounting a defense to keep everyone away? Perhaps some day we will find out and hopefully before it is too late.

After a search, the only known recording of Kundera playing solo piano music was retrieved: a pair of polkas by Smetana, from Prague circa 1949, one year into their Communist puppet regime controlled by Moscow. Kundera’s playing stands apart from prevalent styles through its informed structure, wit, taste, and appreciation of  a thorny modernity that would be manipulated by Janacek and others yet to arrive:

Smetana Polka 1

Evolving out of Smetana’s segments and articulated themes came Janacek’s argumentative and reacting language. While his music is now broadly accessible, in the late 1940s it was rather a confined local affair. Before their regime worsened, Kundera and Bretislav Bakala, a fellow pupil of Janacek’s, made it into the studio just in time: one of their projects displays the pianist and conductor in Defiance, a late work by Janacek, a capriccio for piano (left hand alone) and chamber ensemble, its first recording:

Bakala Kundera

Their playing projects the ingenuity of Janacek’s microcosm, in part from their direct contact with him at the time it was composed. It reaches beyond our present’s cosiness to peer inside his vast personal music world, one that evokes enigmas like Bartók.

Janacek Capriccio excerpt

The world awaits more information and sounds from these people. One path that opened at this time led to Hašek’s The Good Soldier Schweik and Kurt Weill’s Three-Penny Opera, which will take on new dimensions after you experience Janacek. Writers such as Gombrowicz

Gombrowicz Witold Fot. Paczowski Bohdan

picked up the thread, leading into Existentialism, the kingdom later claimed by Sartre, who became yet another dull conventional disputant.

Weill: The Cannon Song

©Allan Evans 2013




Chopin conjured by a Hermetic.

1. Frédéric Chopin en Pologne_Page_1

After his death months before his 101st birthday  in 1993, Bice Horszowski Costa and I looked through the library of her late husband, the pianist Mieczyslaw Horszowski. Before his frontal vision vanished through macular degeneration at the age of eighty-nine, he was very welcoming, especially backstage after his Mozart concerti at the Metropolitan Museum. When I attempted to thank him for playing the lesser known opuses, he brushed off all compliments to exult in Mozart: “Not one note can be added or changed to make it better!” Each year after his ninetieth birthday found him miraculously returning to perform a new program prepared with his wife who assisted the memory of what his eyes no longer deciphered. The conductor Frederic Waldman, with whom he gave two cycles, met the pianist soon after his eyesight worsened, hearing him bemoan the worst: that it prevented him from learning new works.


As a teacher, Horszowski rarely commented, preferring to communicate in sound. His rare remarks hit their targets: to a student struggling over Schubert’s Wanderer Fantasy, he was advised to work on it during a vacation. Upon returning, he listened and after a pregnant pause, offered “It’s VORSE!” Another student imposed overbearing force onto Schubert to be informed that “zere are NO TIGERS in ze VIENNA VOODS!”


In his 97th year, he received me at his Philadelphia home for an interview. I was preparing a CD set with a performance of Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations played when he turned ninety. It would have been absurd, with Horszowski still alive, active, and alert, to dump more ready-made information into the ubiquitous ongoing pageant of names and dates surrounding the music history forced down one’s gullet. These formidable variations were a premonition of Twentieth Century music, virtually bypassing the Nineteenth Century.

Well, how did did he learn them? Slightly arching an eyebrow, he turned aside, commanding his wife to bring several hefty volumes in from his library. All books in position, he began:

“You see, I had an urtext to start with and then found a first edition. I was able to gain access to the autograph. Do you know von Bülow’s edition? [Horszowski held it up to a page that had extensive footnotes, a familiar sense of where to turn as he no longer could see a page’s contents.]


“It is very inaccurate but if you have the unedited music you can see what he has changed. But his commentary is very important.” Horszowski then produced Artur Schnabel’s edition:


“It is a forgotten work, never reprinted, and with important comments. I also heard him play the Diabelli four times in one season. I began to study  them in 1949 [when he was 57 years old]. I also played for Toscanini and Casals and they made comments. I read Tovey on Beethoven. It’s important to know as many works by a composer as possible”

Horszowski paused to lean back on his chair, inhaling:”Then I meditated on it all.”

Decades of searching the globe for Horszowski’s recorded concerts led to Chopin performances that I’ll finally restore and soon publish. While he played in major American and European cities, Horszowski, a former Milanese resident, delighted on his Italian tours down south in Bari, Pistoia, Perugia, especially drawn to the Tuscan mountain town of Castagno d’Andrea which aroused his passion as an Alpinist who scaled the Matterhorn three times.

Castagno d'Andrea
Castagno d’Andrea

Their local priest offered the town’s church for his recitals and recorded them all. Another trip to Gorizia by the border with Slovenia had him playing Chopin’s Andante Spianato and Grand Polonaise, the only occasion in his last three or so decades, captured by an enraptured listener. The art of rubato heard here edges close to descriptions of the composer’s playing. A 1980 evening in Pistoia channeled Chopin moreso than any other yet to surface.

My own contact with his Chopin developed during his last sixteen years of activity and by listening to his few recordings. Each encounter with his art was one musically and spiritually enlightening, and with it came a gripping intensity of hearing him play like a God, then exiting off the stage to leave in his wake a comet’s tail of gratitude tinged with sorrow that it would, at any moment, be over.


Watching his diminutive body change its language with each composer, he  slightly bent forward in Bach, abstaining from pedal. With Chopin his arms had a specific choreography as each composer was to be physically evoked in their unique sound worlds. His Bach arrived as a series of unfolding, overlapping waves, each laid bare for observation while intimating alternative possibilities, piling up into a labyrinth of potential perceptions hovering above their earthbound reality. Behind and within each space and sound came an infinity that arose and vanished inside time’s momentum.

Horszowski’s moderate tone expanded in Chopin to fill an entire space, saturating each cubic centimeter even during soft or chiaroscuro passages. His pedal floated the sound as a force  to completely envelop you, flowing from the aether into him and translating itself into the air, guided by his fingers tracing their motions.

With Horszowski’s passing, the unknown steps behind his exploration of Chopin seeming irretrievable, and as he hermetically put a lid on his ideas and thoughts, we were at a loss to decipher the way he came to unlock Chopin’s enigmas. Horszowski’s mother, his first teacher, had studied with Chopin’s assistant Mikuli and there were other pupils at large, such as Moriz Rosenthal and Raoul “von” Koczalski, whose recordings varied from illumination (Rosenthal) to a dim bulb (Koczalski).

1. Frédéric Chopin en Pologne_Page_4

While taking time off from performing to attend philosophy lectures by Bergson at the Sorbonne around 1914 and immerse himself in reading, Horszowski obtained a new biography of Chopin by Edouard Ganche. Its binding and paper immediately aroused interest:

1. Frédéric Chopin en Pologne_Page_2

A book that never left him, it was his companion from Paris to Milano, during an escape from war torn Europe to Sao Paolo, then New York, and to his long and final residence in Philadelphia. Horszowski began corresponding with the author a decade after the book entered his life. Inside his copy were faint tracings alongside chosen passages. His pencilled clues created a subpath by isolating comments, excerpts from Chopin’s letters, all meekly indicated in the thinnest line of hardly visible pencil.

By doing so, Horszowski became a tacit presence that actively indicated every line that snared him: Chopin’s completion of a work yet to find its name (the Polonaise-Fantasie), a return trip from a hellish holiday  in Majorca with George Sand amidst the stench and constant squealing cargo of one hundred swine whose din didn’t abate during Chopin’s strenuous breathing and his coughing up of tubercular blood.

Ganche bio,jpg

Chopin’s friendship with the artist Delacroix attests to more than a portrait with Sand:


Went with Chopin for his drive at about half-past three. I was glad to be of service to him although I was feeling tired. The Champs-Élysées, l’Arc de l’Étoile, the bottle of quinquina [bitters aperitif], being stopped at the city gate, etc.We talked of music and it seemed to cheer him. I asked him to explain what it is that gives the impression of logic in music. He made me understand the meaning of harmony and counterpoint, how in music, the fugue corresponds to pure logic, and that to be well versed in the fugue is to understand the elements of all reason and development in music. I thought how happy I should have been to study these things, the despair of commonplace musicians. It gave me some idea of the pleasure which true philosophers find in science. The fact of the matter is, that true science is not what we usually mean by that word – not, that is to say, a part of knowledge quite separate from art. No, science, as regarded and demonstrated by a man like Chopin, is art itself, but on the other hand, art is not what the vulgar believe it to be, a vague inspiration coming from nowhere, moving at random and portraying merely the picturesque, external side of things. It is pure reason, embellished by genius, but following a set course and bound by higher laws. And here I come back to the difference between Mozart and Beethoven. As Chopin said to me, ‘Where Beethoven is obscure and appears to be lacking in unity, it is not, as people allege, from a rather wild originality – the quality which they admire in him – it is because he turns his back on eternal principles.’ Mozart never does this. Each part has its own movement which, although it harmonizes with the rest, makes its own song and follows it perfectly. This is what is meant by counterpoint, punto contrapunto. He added that it was usual to learn harmony before counterpoint, that is to say to learn the succession of notes that leads to the harmonies. In Berlioz’s music, the harmonies are set down and he fills in the intervals as best he can. Those men, who are taken up with style that they put in before everything else, prefer to be stupid rather than not to appear serious. Apply this to Ingres and his school.–Eugene Delacroix. Journal entry of 7 April 1849

One of Horszowski’s students kept a trusty device hidden from prying authorities and thus saved a great many concerts. Neglected by the record industry until a late effort arose after his 94th year, such action rescued a great legacy before it vanished. One such moment comes from the final season in his ninety-ninth year: an encore of Chopin’s Valse in C sharp minor comes to life in a 19th century style amidst audience noises that carry you from a state of joy to a sorrowful premonition of impending loss; the Valse was played at what became his penultimate concert.

We continue searching and publishing in gratitude for what Horszowski offered us.

Allan Evans ©2013

Arbiter will soon publish a 2 CD set of Chopin played by Horszowski, containing English translations of all the passages the pianist traced into the margins of Ganche’s biography of Chopin.

Time-warps through my ears.

I cannot resist leaking parts from sounds too good to hide before publication and tweak your antennae. One musician-enigma is Oskar Fried, the Berlin conductor seen above who trained dogs and circus animals before arriving at the Berlin Philharmonic in 1905 without previous experience. Mahler was then on the scene as an opera conductor whose own works attracted devotees. Fried sought Mahler in his guise as director of the Vienna Philharmonic to complain about how one of his works was being mauled by another Viennese conductor. Before much else was said, Mahler informed Fried that he was a conductor, whether he knew it or not. “It’s not written on my face” Fried snapped back, to which Mahler stated, “I know my own people.” In 1924, Fried somehow crammed the Berlin State Opera Orchestra into a studio and became the first musician to record a Mahler symphony, the Second, and in its entirety, but into a horn, as the microphone was yet to arrive.

Fried became very close to Mahler (as seen in this early photo), a disciple to his prophet, and his sonics open a view onto the composer’s own art. The dreadful sounds inhabiting his restricted dim acoustic recording stirred me up to try another approach and liberate his sounds. Here is how the opening now plays:

Mahler 2 excerpt

While Mahler was brewing I revisited home recordings of Rev. Gary Davis, made in a courtyard semi-shack he inhabited stuck behind a Bronx tenement in 1951, the first tapes made of Davis, absent from the pressure of a format setting. He sings a gospel tune with his wife Annie (seen together here about fifteen years later):

Keep me from the path of sin

An early sermon also survives, finding his thorough reading of the sacred books leading him to preach and reach great intensities that also dwelled in his singing and projection through his alter ego, the guitar:


An energy  touches these musicians who vibrate as conduits for a force that projects through their singing and playing. Indian music has a sarod master, Buddhadev Das Gupta who recently appeared here in New York.

The raga Zila Kafi has a deliciously cloying melody in its final phase, capturing a sultry rapture. Das Gupta worked as an engineer and thus avoided the politics and limits of commericalized musical styles, keeping his tradition pure:

Zila Kafi

Energy caught on wax, as Brahms himself cut a cylinder for an agent of Thomas Edison’s who conducted a whirlwind blitz throughout Europe in 1889 to capture celebrities’ voices.

Luckily Brahms did more than just announce his name as he left behind two excerpts, one well known (for being inaudible) Hungarian Dance of his own and a second work: you’ll be rewarded after enduring the first seconds of harsh noise with Josef Strauss’ Die Libelle.Polka-Mazur fur das Piano Forte,op.204. I heard it in Vienna in 1984 and was dismayed at how inaudible it was, taking their word that the buried pianist was the composer himself. As the recording surfaced on the internet, it was time to probe and here we are.

Soak up his own touch, his insistent Harlem-like rhythm and encounter a vivid slice of time projecting his life while he was alive and reactive with a playing that escapes living-room niceties by offering vision and style.

Brahms plays Josef Strauss

Plan on hearing this fragment return in new clothing as experiments continue to appear on these pages. . .

©Allan Evans 2012

Adventures in Cosmic Locomotion

Recent running throughout Europe in situ and sitting pretty at a safe distance across the ocean brings up recent encounters. High velocity rail redefines a continent yet misses the grounded rhythmic chugging in Booker T. Washington White’s narration behind Napoleon Hairiston’s calling out of The New Frisco Train:

The New Frisco Train BUKKA WHITE (1930) Delta Blues Guitar Legend

Up in Norway folk music taps into their depths and manifests within art music. Grieg was coerced into a new studio in the Paris of 1903 where he was ordered to sit down and play through nine of his compositions. One fiddle tune gets reshaped into his Norwegian Bridal Procession.  A sesquicentennial celebration of his birth was celebrated here in New York and its organizers saw no reason whatsoever to include any of Grieg’s own playing during the festivities. Grieg composed this work some forty years earlier and hasn’t lost any of its enraptured momentum. Seen at his side is Nina, wife and muse who sang the lieder he created for her:

Get your ears set for my new attempt at coaxing sounds out his primitively transmitted horn recordings on what seems to have been an upright piano belonging to the Gramophone & Typewriter studio:

Bridal Procession

Down to Genova for lunch prepared by Bice Horszowski Costa, whose traditional spaghetti al pesto adds fagiolini (string beans) and potatoes to the pasta pot, upping its starch and greener tinge.

Our mission was to save a performance by her late husband Mieczyslaw Horszowski. Hanging by a thread, his playing Chopin’s improvisatory Polonaise Fantasie is the finest we have yet to hear, one that survived on a clandestine recording made by a devoted pupil who braved nearby throat-clearers. Their output was enough to undermine a yoga master’s powers to obliterate noise and remove squeaky chairs from the mind:

Chopin opening

Michael Fossenkemper, the New York based audio wizard of Turtletone Studios who saved the Monk-Coltrane Carnegie Hall discovery, guided the software that gagged the gullets:


An unperturbed Horszowski emerged through turtle tone electronics:

PF ok

After lunch we examined a book that Horszowski read in the 1910s while based in Paris and attending Bergson’s lectures at the Sorbonne. Edouard Ganche’s Chopin biography was one of the few volumes in which the pianist left annotations in the margins. It stood out as if he was with us to eagerly point out every meaningful detail, which prompted Mrs. Horszowski to uncover correspondence between Horszowski and Ganche in the 1920s, lasting for over a decade, touching on new finds and Ganche’s preparation of a scholarly edition of the piano music. This furthered our uncovering of Horszowski’s links to Chopin.

Amidst these displacements of time, Oskar Fried’s specter is never far.

A 1929 London performance of Tchaikovsky’s Sixth Symphony was captured under his baton with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. Fried covered most traces of an art that inspires research and to a re-listening that brought up a language empowered by a spirit of dance and extreme unions of instruments into a striking identity not found anywhere else. Fried grasps this better than most baton-wielders:

Fried opening

Russia is full of writers and composers who challenge and shake up any order, creating paradoxes whenever serenity encroaches. The Apollonian musician Galina Werschenska fled Petersburg after the Bolshevik Revolution to safety in Denmark, where she lived for many years and carried with her an untroubled approach. This photo remains as rare as her surviving sounds:

Neglect may be due to gender, yet her profound Russianness conveys a grounded language that Tchaikovsky emanated. A Chopin nocturne, one of her lost Copenhagen discs, exposes an inner world that the blaring of her attention-seeking rivals lacked the patience to explore.

Chopin Nocturne 15.2

Werschenska’s elegance turns history upside-down once again to raise many questions as insight pours through from another dimension.

©Allan Evans 2012

A Playlist of Origins

Sitting in a hot Adriatic Italian town with roosters and hunting dogs making their presence known out the window, a time of capturing a closed neighboring country’s music came to mind. The heat obliges me to ask In a gentlemanly way if you believe that classical music is more important or substantial than all other formats for content and expression. And if you feel so and snub what’s usually served up as Ethnic or World music, you might be right in some way but certainly not here so if this isn’t in your interest, your exit is but a click away

Now for those of you staying, delights await. This magnificent project is one such realization

Unbeknownst to most classical musicians, a parallel universe exists by its side, inspiring and denoting profound historic and stylistic shifts, and if you play with them, they will tell you things that no goddamn printed page can ever hope to imply.

So. . . just how far back in time can we reach via sound? There is the onion of Albanian music. Their dictatorship froze an isolated group of cultures after the 1940s that are identical to the earliest recordings from the 1920s.

Obsessively glued to a radio in Italy’s Marche region, I intercepted Radio Tirana’s local programming  beamed across the Adriatic. With a cassette ever ready throughout the 1980s, some hypnotic moments wafted over:

12 Audio Track

An Ottoman tinge clings to their southern clarinet style, blending with a Greek Epirotic sound:

27 Audio Track

Epirus had an open border and Perikles Halkias recalled crossing over to serenade Albanian chicks. Their style, so similar, has a looser swing, Epirotika with erotica.

Epirotika by Halkias

Unlike the even steadiness next door, Albanians shape their rhythm into a wild Balkan structure that sounds disjointed, yet is remarkably precise, elusive and unsettling to anyone lackng a rock-solid sense of beat.

30 Audio Track

Up in the North it’s totally different. Clarinets are replaced by çifteli, thin-necked lutes to support a florid popular vocal style.

2 Audio Track

Yet at the same time, something is on the scene that has held over from Byzantine modal moods about seven hundred years ago, as a pentatonic scale flits in and out of their mist:

6 Audio Track

An unexpected visit from Chinese and Mongols still echoes a thousand years or so onward in a dance requiring at least three legs as four beats morph into a group of nine, then ten before hugging onto a prominent four beat pattern:

7 Audio Track

We hit the deepest layer in polyphonic singing, all metric, with each voice having a distinct role in piloting an epic text.

29 Audio Track.aiff 18.41

We have no sonic evidence of how Greek tragedy choruses were chanted out but this may bring us up ever so close as their neighbors use prosody and multiple voices in a far earlier practice than the pile-up of sounds we recently peeled through.

But within hearing range is an example by the master-mind Bartók, who aside from having been one of our greatest composers and pianists, also invented the deep science of Ethnomusicology. One of his rare discs was released by the Hungarians, a performance of excerpts from his Hungarian Peasant Dances for solo piano. My recent discovery of the original recording brought forth sounds that the dull dubs accessed by the Budapest scholars failed to reveal. An excerpt, recorded on a Pleyel piano by Bartók himself in Paris, 1936:

Bartók excerpt

Bartók crossed class lines to live, eat, breathe, and record the folk, the happiest days of his life, he always said. City dwellers wouldn’t dare venture beyond a trade of money for peasants’ goods at a market, whereas Bartók’s frightening entrance into their remote villages, a city dweller probably out to collect taxes or make their lives worse, soon evaporated as he set up an Edison cylinder recorder and cajoled them into offering their song. Note the shy ones peering over the fence:

Ligeti, a fellow Transylvanian, loved to admit how he composed elements from African music into his piano etudes, daring anyone to find them. Bartók left a smoking gun in the case of a section in his Improvisations for piano. Here we have a unique performance he gave after a radio program that was preserved, a work otherwise unrecorded by its composer:

10 Improv 4

And if one digs through his 1907 field recording cylinders, we hear how he secretly copied a woman’s tone, phrasing and articulation that remained within his ear and art after twenty years.

Improvisation source

©Allan Evans 2012


Consciousness of streams: stirrings of an Ethnographer

One inadvertently eavesdrops on conversations, eyes discarded leaflets, witnesses unexpected scenes. A pile-up of transitory collisions somehow etch themselves to reside within you, shaping one’s destiny. Some people manage to ignore it all. I hold on, to everything possible – written out, placed in a notebook. With time’s scalpel, here is a sliced cross-section of what the breezes blew by.

Chapter One: Richman and Louie, employees at Newsweek Magazine

This conversation took place at a time when Philip Glass and Steve Reich actively began composing what became known as Minimalist Music.

scene one: men’s room, during urination:

R: Yessir,  [in a sermonizing tone] Old Man Mahood’s gone! He found somethin’ better. He’s goin’. Yessir.

L: Hey Richman, Andy’s leaving too!

R: Yah, Old Man Mahood’s leavin; for good. Been a long time, he mus’ave found somethin’ better, real good.

L: Andy’s leaving too.

R: Yessir, Old Man Mahood’s going. Found something better.

[anonymous voice from a stall]: How can you get any better than this?

scene two: a discussion that occurred two-to-four times weekly:

[Louis often brought in generous quantities of lunch to share.]

L: When you bring in the food?

R: Yessir baby, I’m gonna bring in good food. . .

L: When your bring in the food??

R: Yessir, good food!

L: Shuttup you’ a liar.

R: I’ll bring in plenty for everybody.

L: Shuttup, I hate you. You don’t bring nothing.

R: Yah, I’m gonna bring in good food!


R: Yessir, baby . . .(munches on Louis’s sandwich). . .

scene three: summa cum laude

R: Yessir, I use to have thirty-nine cars. . . I’m sixty eight years old. . .Um-hmm! Use’ to cook for Gen’l Patton. I cooked right out of his helmet. . .Yah (leaning to Andy), you’ young ‘n’ hansom, you get to sing and you get all the women, like Pavarotty, he sings real good. Bel Canto don’t come overnight. It takes years. . .Uh-humm.

[quiet pause]

R: Yessir, , , I see GHOSTS!

[quiet pause]

R: I see SPIRITS!!

L: You’re a LIAR! You see you’ GOD! You see the Devil. You don’ see nothin’. Shut up, I hate you! I don’ believe in you’ God!

R: I’m seventy-two-years old. Yessir.

Chapter Two: Graffiti and words of wisdom caught on the run.

December 1981, First Avenue @ 14th Street, L train eastbound platform:

Fuckin train
is fuckin late
Fuckin wait
Fuckin wait
The fuckin food
is fuckin old
Fuckin broads
are Fuckin cold
Fuckin lost,
Fuckin found
Evidently chickentown.

Chapter Three:  New York’s ethnic diversity in 1986. A Polish craftsman opines:

Ach, I love the Irish! Jimmy, vy don’t you sink? The Irish they love singink. I remember a fellow Mike used to verk heeah. He vould be singink all the time. Ach vat a man he was, a real man! He loved all the ladies and the ladies loved him! And his vife would somehow find aht vere he vas and give it to him on the head on his vay aht of a voman’s apahtment! I remember the parade, you know viz everyting and he was densing!  How he could dense!!

Mike’s destiny recalled a passage in A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, a rare moment wafting out of this otherwise swamp of sentimentality that seemed to hint at a karmic retribution on its way, :

About a year after Johnny’s marriage, Frankie, whom many thought even handsomer than Andy, wavered home after a drinking party one night and stumbled over some taut wire that a bucolic Brooklynite had strung around a square foot of grass before his home stoop. The wire was held up by three sharp little sticks. As Frankie stumbled, one of the sticks pierced his stomach. He got up somehow and went home. He died during the night.

 a few weeks later:

Rush hour on the F train. Seated nearby, a 30-ish man held a tattered briefcase littered with decals, bearing in large letters: Duke Rotnac. He began singing aloud

Duke Duke Rotnac, Duke Duke Rotnac

with the following melody:


he then varied its accentuation into

Duke – Dukerotnac, Duke – Dukerotnac,


After four repetitions of this hymn to his alter-ego, he pulled out from his briefcase a tome of Heine’s poetry and lectured to all within hearing that “Heine was too insecure to be an atheist, unlike Spinoza. . .”

. . .at which point my stop arrived and deprived me of his wisdom.

Chapter Four: A close encounter with Enlightenment

At a time when I was interviewing musicians and ever so slowly writing their testimony into a biography on Ignaz Friedman came an encounter that still shakes me by the way it represents a search for the unknown, the lost, the intangible. A trip to Chicago to meet a pupil of Friedman’s was preceded by dinner at an aunt’s home. Their guest. . .  a rare species he was! A pre-Soviet Russian who went West after the Revolution. For some reason he had to subvert the ongoing conversation to a memory that suddenly gripped him. As a youth, he lolled about a grandiose, daunting bookshelf kept in order by his father. He randomly reached up and pulled out a volume:

From the first sentence it felt as though I was discovering myself through this author. He seemed to understand me more than anyone else had in my life, even more than my own self and I couldn’t put the book down. I read on and found it was revealing everything I should know. My father unexpectedly entered and saw the book I had found, grabbed it out of my hands and said ‘You are too young to read this.’ I never saw it again, never found any trace of who might have been the author. To this day, I feel that my entire life has been incomplete for not having read it.

Decades later, I reconnected with an older cousin, their son, and asked him about this mysterious being:

His name was Gregory Lotsman, a real character. And, he ran the Soviet bookstore in Chicago for many years. I worked there for him for a while. He ran away from home when he was about 16 years old, so if that incident with the book ever really occurred, it must have been when he was in his early teens. He died around 1995, I think. I remember how he used to recite poetry, play the guitar. He also played a decent game of chess, and I still have an old chess set which he gave me which he said was carved by a prisoner in a tsarist prison. He was a colorful and bombastic character, debonair and a gentleman, though he could be quite abrasive on occasion.

–Allan Evans ©2012

pre-war Geisha Blues

One day at Beate Gordon’s home in New York, she noticed a series of recordings on her shelf while we were examining photos for a new CD of the pianist Leo Sirota, her father.

She asked whether these discs might be of interest.

This unfamiliar set of sixty ten-inch shellac discs seemed to cover the full range of Japan’s traditions, the first volume containing the ancient shamanic court Gagaku music played by the Imperial Household ensemble, and Buddhist chant. While familiar with koto and shamisen music, I had only heard live performances and recent recordings and like the gagaku it sounded so elegant and fragile, as if it could be easily shattered, barely glued together to keep an ancient tradition alive.

Recent Gagaku:

How would these older recordings compare, as they claim that their tradition is unbroken?

Gagaku Taishikichô chôshi

Right away the presence of fewer musicians and a gripping weight, an idea of permanence leapt out of the old grooves. It sounded as if the players and their culture were part of an ancient ongoing practice that gazed into eternity, before any need to be reassembled from shards after Japan’s defeat. Every other genre, of the Noh theater, Kabuki, koto and shamisen music, folksongs, all carried a comfort and ease, a swaying rhythm hat became stratified after the country’s dismantling. Many of the performers not only represented the pre-War spirit but some were born before and trained by musicians pre-dating 1868, the moment when Japan ceased to be hermetic and foreign visitors and influences entered.

I located an extraordinary scholar, Dr. Naoko Terauchi of Kobe University who had written a comparison between the earliest (1903) gagaku and its present state. She proved to be unique in her field and amongst most ethnomusicologists who prefer writing to listening. Dr. Terauchi discovered that two known complete sets are extant; one in a library, the other Beate Gordon’s.

Beate received the discs on a military mission in Japan during her 22nd year. A fellow officer, Donald Richie, who became a leading authority on Japanese cinema, stumbled upon the set and gave it to her for safe keeping. Beate played a decisive role with the US military as they wrote in secret Japan’s postwar constitution. A native Viennese who grew  up in Japan, she demanded that there be a section on women’s rights. Arguing with the military staff, she prevailed but as a young dancer, had little experience in writing a legal document. Procuring an army jeep and driver, she scoured Tokyo in search of libraries that had not been bombed. At each one she borrowed one copy of a foreign constitution along with several popular novels, doing so to avoid suspicion. Beate studied about seven documents, in seven languages, and through her work the women of Japan have a unique legal status, something that the United States and many other countries still lack. Here is Beate describing her mission (filmed in 2011).

Beate lectures on her mission and was the guiding force at the Asia Society’s arts programming for decades. She recently appeared at the Japan Society, wearing a designer dress from c. 1910 that surpassed everyone’s attire, perhaps in the entire metropolis as well that night:

Her indirect rescue of a full cross-section of traditional music, which never saw the light due to the War (possibly their warehouse was bombed), has resulted in three of a five cd series that Dr. Terauchi and I are publishing. Here is a song appearing along with its text, a sultry Geisha ballad recorded in 1940, sung by Kaneko Chieko, accompanied by  Tamura Taiko, Sahashi Shôko on their shaminsen which is now in preparation for volume 4: Geisha, theater songs, children’s songs and games.


Samidare no sora ni hitokoe hototogisu. Under the May rain, a cuckoo sings.

Harete kogidasu Mokubo-ji no, When the rain stops, a boat rows out by the Mokubo-ji temple.

Sekiya hanarete Ayaseguchi. Leaving Sekiya through Ayaseguchi.

Ushida no mori wo yoko ni mite, It passed by the Ushida forest.

Koyuru ma mo naku Horikirino, Soon it reached Horikiri,

Sakuya goshaku no ayamegusa. Where tall irises gorgeously bloom.

Kyara no kaori to kono kimi sama wa, Like a scent of eaglewood,

Ikuyo tometemo washa tome akanu. I never get tired of him, even if I let him stay for a number of nights.

Netemo sametemo wasurarenu. I cannot forget him night and day.