Track List: Bali 1928 – ANTHOLOGY: The First Recordings A selection drawn from five volumes comprising new and older styles of Balinese music recorded by Odeon & Beka, newly remastered in 2015
World Arbiter completes its restoration and publication of all known extant recordings of music in Bali made in 1928 (and possibly 1929), originally part of a collection of the first and only commercially–released recordings prior to World War II. All are remastered for this release by Sam Patrick Yannotti with liner notes by Edward Herbst.
- Kebyar Ding I: Kebyar 3:04
- Kebyar Ding II: Surapati 3:01
- Kebyar Ding III: Oncang oncangan 2:58
- Gending Longgor I 2:47
- Tabuh Légod Bawa 2:49
- Pangkur 2:58
- Dangdang Gula 3:02
- Dangdang Gula I 2:49
- Kidung Wargasari I 2:59
- Kakwin Smaradahana 2:57
- Tabuh Ginanti 2:25
- Tabuh Lasem 2:53
- Solo 2:44
- Selendro 2:50
- Angkat-angkatan 2:56
- Ganderangan 3:00
- Peperangan Sira Panji dengan Prabangsa 2:58
- Ngisep Dublag 3:13
- Pangécét Bérong 2:55
- Ginada Sampik-Ingtai 2:55
- Kidung Jayendriya 3:07
- Kidung Jayendriya 3:01
- Mula Tubuh di Kaléran 2:47
- Durma Sudarsana 3:06
- Lagu Tangis 3:03
The Bali 1928 project has benefited by a great many participants. The core research team has included I Ketut Kodi, Ni Ketut Suryatini, Ni Ketut Arini, I Nyoman Astita, Komang Ongki, and myself. Our initial research in 2003 involved a wide range of gamelan and vocal genres, with a team that included Ketut Suryatini, I Madé Arnawa, Wayan Dibia and myself. Our core 2006, ‘07, ‘08–’09, and ‘13–‘15 research team consisted of Ketut Kodi, Ketut Suryatini, Ketut Arini, Wayan Dibia, Komang Ongki, and myself. Textual transcriptions and translations from Balinese and Kawi to Indonesian were done by I Nyoman Suarka, Ketut Kodi, Ida I Déwa Gdé Catra, I Ketut Wirtawan and Nyoman Catra. Our Senior Project Advisor for publications in Indonesia is I Madé Bandem. While the project would not be possible without the deep inter-subjective discourse made possible by years of cooperative efforts and pleasurable experiences together, I take responsibility for any faults the reader may find in the text of these notes.
Profound thanks are due to the many artists, informants, and consultants specific to this volume including I Wayan Suwéca and I Wayan Konolan, Ni Nyoman Candri, I Ketut Kanthor, Ida Bagus Tegog, I Déwa Putu Serong, I Nyoman Sudiana, I Nyoman Rata, Pandé Putu Sunarta, I Déwa Putu Agung (Pamangku Pura Bukit Camplung) and Déwa Mangku Manggis (Sidan), I Nyoman Wisura, Ida Pedanda Gdé Manuaba of Geria Peling, Padang Tegal, Ida Bagus Pujiarsa, I Wayan Beratha, I Nyoman Yudha, I Wayan Pamit, I Wayan Pogog, I Wayan Tangguh, I Ketut Gedé Asnawa, I Wayan Sinti, N.L.N. Suasthi Widjaja Bandem, I Komang Sudirga, Ida Bagus Pidada Kaut, I Nyoman Rembang, and I Madé Netra. Special thanks to I Gedé Arya Sugiartha, Rector of Institut Seni Indonesia (ISI)-Bali, which continues to host our seminars relating to the research and documentation.
Additional thanks for advice on language, literature, musical and cultural issues to Hildred Geertz, Thomas M. Hunter, I Nengah Médera, Hedi Hinzler, I Wayan Juniartha, Mas Ruscitadéwi, Beth Skinner, José Evangelista, and Evan Ziporyn. For a complete list of acknowledgments see the PDF on this CD.
Access to the original 78 rpm records has been made available to us courtesy of the University of California, Los Angeles, Ethnomusicology Archive and the Colin McPhee Estate (thanks to John Vallier, Maureen Russell, Anthony Seeger, Marlowe Hood, Jacqueline DjeDje and Aaron Bittel), Indonesia’s Museum Nasional in Jakarta (Retno Sulisthianingsih, former Director) and Sana Budaya in Yogyakarta, Laurel Sercombe at University of Washington, New York Public Library, Martin Hatch at Cornell University, Nancy Dean and Ellen Koskoff, Totom Kodrat and Soedarmadji J.H. Damais in Jakarta (and the Louis Charles Damais collection), Wim van der Meer and Ernst Heins at the Jaap Kunst Archives, University of Amsterdam, Jaap Erkelens, Anak Agung Ngurah Gdé Agung, Puri Karangasem, Allan Evans, Michael Robertson, and Pat Conte.
Special thanks to Rocio Sagaon Vinaver, Djahel Vinaver and José G. Benitez Muro for permission to use Miguel Covarrubias’s film footage from Bali that has been so useful in triggering the memories of older-generation artists. The Rolf de Maré films are included by kind permission from Dansmuseet and The Rolf de Maré Foundation, Stockholm. Arthur Fleischmann photographs are reproduced by kind permission of the Arthur Fleischmann family. Walter Spies’s photographs are reproduced courtesy of the Walter Spies Foundation, Holland.
We especially appreciate the extraordinary generosity and trust of the UCLA Ethnomusicology Archive, which allowed us to borrow their 78 discs as well as Colin McPhee’s invaluable film footage and photographs. Special thanks to Philip Yampolsky who served as Project Officer at the Ford Foundation, Jakarta (supporting research in 2003, 2006 and 2007) and also as an informant on the history and whereabouts of the Odeon–Beka original 78 rpm discs without whom this collection would have been almost impossible to assemble. Endo Suanda helped envision and organize the Bali 1928 project at its inception. Thanks to the Asian Cultural Council for funding research in 2008–09. Additional support has been provided by Ray Noren as well as Yayasan Bali Purnati ‘The Bali Purnati Center for the Arts’. A 2014-15 Fulbright Senior Research Scholar Award is allowing Edward Herbst to conduct field research relating to the 1928 recordings, sponsored by AMINEF and the Ministry of Research and Technology, Republic of Indonesia.
The Research Foundation of CUNY received a grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to support the collaborative work involving Edward Herbst as project coordinator, ethnomusicologist and principal investigator, with Arbiter of Cultural Traditions in New York, directed by Allan Evans, and STIKOM-Bali, coordinated by Marlowe Makaradhwaja, in Indonesia. This Bali 1928 Project, “Restoration, Dissemination and Repatriation of the Earliest Music Recordings and Films in Bali,” will result in five volumes and an anthology to be published as CDs, DVDs and cassettes in the U.S. and Indonesia as well as providing archival audio-visual resources online.
Liner notes (below) by Edward Herbst 2015
Videos made in the 1930s are on our Bali 1928 YouTube channel